Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of renin angiotensin aldosterone system

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Abstract: according to the different effects of traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese medicine has reviewed the inhibition of renin angioten


Abstract: according to the different effects of traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese medicine has reviewed the inhibition of renin angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II receptor antagonist and aldosterone receptor antagonism, clinical syndrome and disease, provide the basis for the rational use, so as to effectively improve the clinical efficacy.

Keywords: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), renin inhibitors, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB), aldosterone antagonism

The renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is an important neuroendocrine system in the human body, it is widely used in Yu Xinzang, blood vessels, kidney, adrenal gland, is very important for maintaining the normal blood pressure and electrolyte balance plays a role. The over activation of this system is closely related to the occurrence and development of various cardiovascular diseases and renal diseases, and blocking some of the links and targets can effectively prevent the progression of the disease. So far, the renin inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB), aldosterone receptor antagonist (AB) is the different links around the RAAS play a role in the mechanism not only by regulating blood pressure, and a series of inflammation and immune regulation. The invention and application of the RASS antagonist drugs is one of the most important achievements in medicine.

However, in the long-term application of the drugs have certain limitations, such as cyclophosphamide induced cough, the induced by high potassium, the pregnant women, because it can cause fetal malformations, disable the patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis, were decreased by severe renal failure and glomerular filtration rate to avoid the application, easy to cause the first dose hypotension, etc..

After years of exploration, has its own characteristics and advantages of Chinese medicine in the antagonism of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system, and can according to the type of syndrome and symptoms of patients with different TCM drugs, not only obvious antagonism, and can effectively improve the patients with various symptoms, the industry won the affirmation. Now according to the different effects of traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Chinese medicine has reviewed the research on antagonism of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system, for clinical and experimental study with fellow.

A tonic, RASS antagonists

Traditional Chinese medicine replenishing agent including Qi, warming Yang, nourishing blood and nourishing Yin, deficiency of Qi and Yin and Yang of the human body according to different use. In this kind of medicine, at present, the research of RASS is Astragalus, epimedium, angelica, white peony and American ginseng.

Huangqi: sweet, tepid. Lung and spleen meridian. Effect of Qi sun, masue Gubiao and water swelling, holding sore muscle. The chemical constituents include astragalus polysaccharides, Astragalus saponins, glucuronic acid, a variety of amino acids and folic acid. Shi Hailian [1] with left ventricular hypertrophy induced by pressure overload induced by contraction of abdominal aorta was narrow in rats, were treated with different dose of astragaloside IV in 12 weeks, found that Astragalus can make the gene and protein expression of AT2 in myocardial tissue, but the animal model group of myocardial AT1 gene and protein up-regulated in the fabric the expression of reversal effect showed that Astragalus can inhibit rat excessive activated rennin angiotensin system.

Epimedium: pungent, sweet and warm. Kidney and liver meridian. Effect of kidney yang, qufengchushi. Total flavonoids of Herba Epimedii (TFE) was extracted from Herba Epimedii by total flavonoids. Dong Xiaolei [2] on isoproterenol induced congestive heart failure (CHF) rats, the effects of TFE on heart failure rats cardiac function, plasma aldosterone (ALD) and ventricular remodeling found congestive heart failure in rats with isoproterenol induced myocardial fibrosis (MF) were significantly decreased heart function; but after the intervention of TFE ALD was significantly decreased, MF significantly improved. It is suggested that TFE can improve the cardiac function and ventricular remodeling in experimental congestive heart failure rats by reducing plasma ALD.

Angelica: sweet, pungent, warm. Liver, heart and spleen meridian. Effect of Huoxue Zhitong buxuetiaojing, laxative. Modern pharmacological experiments have proved that angelica injection can reduce blood lipid, anti arrhythmia, dilate blood vessels, improve myocardial ischemia and reduce blood pressure. [3] cell biology by Di US cent method, observation of Angelica Injection on effect of angiotensin II induced hypertrophy of neonatal rat myocardial cells, the results showed that Ang II can significantly increase the diameter and protein content of myocardial cells (P < 0.01), angelica injection has reversal effect on this effect (P < 0.05). Wang Zhanglian et al. [4] found that the injection of Angelica point injection can decrease the plasma renin activity (PRA) and Ang II content in rats with chronic glomerulonephritis and decrease the blood pressure significantly. The possible mechanism is: acupuncture can reduce the PRA, Ang II, which decreased the activity of RASS; the angelica can significantly reduce blood platelet thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and the antagonism of RASS, thereby reducing the pressor effect.

White peony: bitter, sour, slightly cold. Liver and spleen meridian. Nourishing blood, nourishing the liver and relieving pain, astringing Yin stabilize liver yang. Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is the effective component extracted from Radix Paeoniae Alba (PF) including: paeoniflorin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, hydroxy benzoylpaeoniflorin, paeonin etc.. Feng Ruier [5] experiment by high fat and high sugar diet replication metabolic syndrome Hypertension (MS-Ht) rat model, we found that TGP MS-Ht can make the blood pressure of rats and Ang, II, TNF- alpha renin and endothelin (ET-1) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased, while the content of NO and superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity decreased; metformin (Met) and TGP can significantly reduce the blood pressure of rats and renin, AngII, TNF- alpha, endothelin (ET) -1 and MDA content, increasing the content of NO and SOD, NOS activity, suggesting that antihypertensive drugs may also include: the mechanism of inhibition of RAS. Generation of antagonistic mediators of inflammation and free radicals, enhanced the vasodilator effect.

American ginseng: sweet, bitter, cool. Lung, heart, kidney and spleen. Effect of Tonifying Qi and nourishing Yin, clearing heat and fluid. Ginsenoside 20S- (PQDS) from Panax quinquefolium L. leaves was isolated and purified from total saponins of Panax quinquefolium L., 20S-. Lufeng [6] research shows that PQDS can significantly reduce plasma renin activity, thereby blocking RAS first cascade, its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of sympathetic nerve tension is too high, reduce catecholamine (CA) secretion of. PQDS can also significantly reduce the serum ACE activity, suggesting that it may play a role in the protection of ischemic myocardium by direct inhibition of ACE. PQDS can significantly reduce plasma renin activity, which shows that the two cascade reaction and inhibition of sympathetic neurotransmitters and RAS, CA and RAS break the mutual promotion mechanism caused by the vicious spiral, than the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor effect more widely.

Two, blood stasis medicine

Blood stasis removing agent has promoting blood circulation and promote the blood stasis, dissipating main effect, according to its strength and effect of Zhuyu Xiaozheng for blood. In this class of drugs, the RASS antagonists are salvia, chuanxiong, safflower, Jiang Huang, Dalbergia, Rhodiola, motherwort and leech etc..

Chuanxiong: spicy, warm. Liver, gallbladder and pericardium meridian. Effect of the blood circulation of Qi, dispelling wind and relieving pain. Ligustrazine is effective ingredients extracted from the rhizome of chuanxiong, the basic chemical structure of four methylpyrazine, a vasodilator, anti platelet aggregation and calcium antagonistic action. Sun Yin [7] equal to observe the effects of Ligustrazine on restenosis of rat angiotensin II (Ang II), endothelin (ET) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-) show the effects of Ligustrazine, after carotid artery vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation decreased, Ang II and ET was significantly decreased and PDGF- beta the expression was significantly weakened. In vitro cell culture showed that [8] could effectively inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by angiotensin II.

Salvia miltiorrhiza: bitter, slightly cold. The heart, liver, pericardium. Effect of Huoxue Tiaojing, removing blood stasis and relieving pain, cooling blood and eliminating carbuncle, Chufan sedative. Gao Xiaoping [9] found that Salvia miltiorrhiza showed the strongest inhibitory activity of extracts of ACE, in order to select from the ACEI, the authors extracted from the salvia water-soluble components, in ACE, and to determine the ACEI of Danshen salvianolic acid by fluorescence detection method for salvianolic acid B Danshensu and rosmarinic acid. It has been proved that compound Danshen injection can effectively prevent ACE activity in renal tissue of rats with obstructive nephropathy, reduce the formation of Ang II, and protect the kidney [10].

Safflower: spicy, warm. The heart and liver meridian. Effect of promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis and relieving pain. The main active ingredient of chalcone pigment and flavonols, safflor yellow (SY) is the effective part of chalcone group, is a mixture of water soluble constituents in safflower. SY has the pharmacological effects of dilating blood vessels, anti thrombosis, anti atherosclerosis, lowering blood fat, anti inflammation and immunosuppression. Guo Dengzhou found [11] experiment, compared with the model group, safflower yellow can significantly reduce the proteinuria, reduce the pathological damage of renal tissue in rats with diabetic nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy (DN) significantly decreased the content of Ang in rat renal tissue, reduce the activity of ACE in renal tissue of DN rats, significantly increased the expression of Ang protein and the gene expression of renal tissue in rats. Description of safflor yellow could decrease Ang II content, maintain the balance of ACE and ACE II, thereby regulating the circulation and local vasomotor balance, maintain renal blood flow and metabolism of water and salt stability, finally to antagonize renal fibrosis.

Turmeric: pungent, bitter, warm. Liver and spleen meridian. Effect of promoting blood circulation of Qi, pass through the pain. Curcumin is a polyphenol compound extracted from biological plant Jiang Huang, turmeric and zedoary rhizome in plants. It has many pharmacological effects, such as anti inflammation, anti-oxidation, reducing blood lipid and anti atherosclerosis. Myocardial cell hypertrophy and extracellular signal Guo Bingyan [12] experiments with in vitro cultured myocardial cells of neonatal rats of curcumin on Ang II induced kinase (ERK) expression, results show that Ang II can significantly increase the protein synthesis rate in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, and curcumin can significantly inhibit cardiomyocyte protein synthesis rate. That curcumin can inhibit the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by Ang ii.

Rhodiola Dalbergia Dalbergia,: pungent, the liver, the spleen, the efficacy of Qi Huoxue Dingtong; salidroside, bitter, flat, spleen and lung, the efficacy of activating blood to stop bleeding, Yiqi Guben, Yangxin tongmai. The combination with Yiqi Huoxue Tongmai Yangxin, work, play a synergistic effect, more than [13] Kun experiment of "medicine", Rhodiola Dalbergia intervention in rats after acute myocardial infarction, observe the vascular Ang content, myocardial infarction angiotensin II (AGT) mRNA expression and the effects of the experimental results confirmed that the "medicine", Rhodiola Dalbergia can improve myocardial remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats, its mechanism may be related to the decrease of myocardial infarction area of Ang II content and AGT expression of mRNA.

Motherwort: spicy, bitter, slightly cold. The heart, liver, bladder. Effect of Huoxue Tiaojing detumescence, detoxification. Alkaloid is the main active component. Guo Wei [14] experiment using neonatal rat myocardial cells in vitro, through the Ang II induced hypertrophy, to observe the effect of stachydrine in different concentration on mast cells, and further explore the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in the anti hypertrophic effect. Results stachydrine inhibited Ang II induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in neonatal rats, inhibit the increase of ROS content may be one of its mechanisms.

Leech: taste salty, bitter, flat. Have small poison. Liver meridian. Effect of broken blood circulation, blood stasis eliminating blood stasis dredging. Hirudin is the effective components. Batller et al. In vitro study of 125I Ang II binding assay showed that activated human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) had a large number of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) expression. It is suggested that activated HSCs is an important target organ of Ang in the hepatic vascular system. AngII acts on HSCs receptor of AT1, can cause the increase of intracellular calcium, and then through the ERK and other ways to act on the transcription factor AP-1, and ultimately cause HSCs activation and proliferation. The experimental results show that Ang II stimulated by two kinds of leech drug serum pretreatment HSCs [Ca2+]i fluorescence intensity change of percentage was significantly lower than that of liver fibrosis model group and normal control group, suggesting that leech blocking or inhibiting Ang II HSCs signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting the activation and proliferation of HSCs.

Three, heat clearing drugs

Drugs can for clearing away the heat as the main role is called antipyretic, according to its function has divided into heat purging fire, heat and dampness, heat and cooling blood, detoxification, clear heat etc.. In this class of drugs, the RASS antagonists are lotus seeds, figwort root, honeysuckle, Sophora flavescens and Chuipencao, Digupi etc..

Lotus heart: bitter, cold. The heart and kidney. Effect of tranquilize, heat, heart and kidney, seminal bleeding. The alkaloid is extracted from the green embryo of lotus seeds. Chen Aihua [16] observation of Pronuciferine on human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by Ang II (HUVECs) apoptosis, found that it can significantly enhance the activity of tNOS, thereby increasing the secretion of HUVECs NO, and Ang II antagonist induced apoptosis of endothelial cells, this effect of Pronuciferine concentration is 1 mol/L. It indicated that low concentration of Pronuciferine by enhancing the activity of tNOS especially eNOS activity to increase HUVECs secretion of NO, inhibition of Ang II stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, thereby reducing the Ang II induced HUVECs apoptosis, exert its protective function of endothelial cells.

Figwort: taste cold, bitter, sweet and salty. To the lung, stomach and kidney. Effect of heat and cooling blood, detoxification, nourishing yin and purging fire. Rom bousts et al. Suggested that ALD may enhance the expression of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1), and enhance the effect of Ang II on collagen synthesis of cardiac fibroblasts. Figwort can significantly reduce the content of ALD, which may be the inhibition of Ang II content increase mechanism of preventing ventricular remodeling.

Lonicera japonica thunb. The lung, heart and stomach. Effect of heat clearing and detoxicating, dispelling wind and heat. The main active ingredient was chlorogenic acid. From the molecular structure, chlorogenic acid and salvianolic acid B can effectively inhibit ACE activity with catechol acid structure, suggesting that catechol acid structure as active group could inhibit ACE. Cao Xiaogang et al. Screened [18] to inhibit the activity of ACE and the active site, and it was found that the extract could inhibit the activity of ACE. The inhibition rate of ACE was 87.3%, the main component was chlorogenic acid, and the purity of recrystallization was about, which was removed from the extract of honeysuckle extract. Therefore, it has been confirmed that honeysuckle extract has a strong inhibitory effect on ACE, and the main component of the active site is chlorogenic acid.

Hanging grass: sexual sweet, light, slightly cold. The heart, liver and gallbladder. With Qingrejiedu, diuretic swelling, pus myogenic effect. There are three kinds of compounds, such as cyanide glycosides, flavonoids, sterols and terpenoids. In addition to anti hepatitis and immune activity, but also the role of ACEI and estrogen. Hyuncheol [19] effect experiment, test tube of ACEI Chuipencao various extracts showed that ethyl acetate extracts have good activity in 400 g/ml, its pharmacological is: angiotensin converting enzyme in physiological admiral Ang I into Ang ii. Ang stimulates the synthesis and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex, leading to Na+ retention and increased blood pressure. Ethyl acetate as an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, mainly through the inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme, Ang I can not be converted to Ang II in order to achieve the role of lowering blood pressure.

Sophora flavescens ait. The heart, liver, stomach, colon, bladder. Effect of heat and dampness, insecticidal, diuretic. Matrine (Mat) from Sophora tonkinensis, alkaloids of Sophora flavescens extract, its molecular formula is C15H24N2O, which belongs to the tetracyclic quinolizine. Zhou Yanfang et al. [20] study found that Mat inhibited fibroblast proliferation induced by G1 in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts induced by angiotensin II (CFs). It is suggested that Mat can reverse the myocardial fibrosis induced by Ang II in the process of myocardial fibrosis.

Digupi: taste of cold, sweet. In the lung, liver and kidney. In addition there are cooling steam, the effect of Qingfei fire. Chemical composition of organic acid matter such as linoleic acid, linolenic acid, cinnamic acid and two had inhibitory effects on ACE (s) -9- hydroxy - (10E, 12Z) - eighteen and two carbon acid (s) -9- hydroxy - (10E, 12Z, 15Z) - eighteen C three acid etc.. Zhou Xingwang et al. [21] isolated from a white amorphous powder, identified as ferulic acid eighteen ester. Pharmacological study showed that both Digupi decoction, infusion, tincture, or injection for anesthesia dogs, cats, rabbits, rats received intravenous or intramuscular injection or irrigation stomach has obvious antihypertensive effect. May be related to inhibition of ACE in Cortex Lycii contains many elements to achieve its antihypertensive effect.

Four, cough phlegm and antiasthmatic drugs

Where a drug or phlegm expectorant effect, called apophlegmatisant. Mainly for phlegm cough or phlegm and asthma, cough unhappy. At present, RASS antagonists are Fritillaria, Peucedanum, Tinglizi, seaweed, almond is also described in this together antiasthmatics.

Fritillaria: bitter, cold. Lung, heart. Effect of Qingre Runfei cough and phlegm,.OH H [22] has found that Fritillaria butanol extract 400 g/mL inhibited the activity of ACE was about 59%. The biological activity oriented, obtains 3 steroidal alkaloids from the extract of fritillarine, peimine and peiminine. It was found that the 3 compounds at the concentration of 15-950 mol/L inhibited ACE activity in a dose related, IC50 were 165, 312.8 and 26.5 mol/L; the positive control drug Kato Pury IC50 20nmol/L. this is the first report of steroidal alkaloids have inhibitory effect on ACE.

Decursivum: bitter, acrid, slightly cold. Meridian tropism. Effect of dispelling wind heat, phlegm and qi. Hu Jiasu (Pd-Ia) is the NOM coumarin extracted from peucedanumpraeruptorm Dunn in. Wang Ying [23] found that Pd-Ia can significantly inhibit Ang of myocardial cells induced by overexpression of c-Jun protein, and the increase of intracellular [Ca2+] Ang II induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy signal transduction pathway plays an important role in. Ang II, which is bound to AT1R on the membrane of cardiomyocytes, activates the cell membrane phospholipase system to produce IP3 and DG, and induces the increase of intracellular [Ca2+] and the activation of protein kinase (PKC). PKC can be activated by mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and other series of cascade reactions of nuclear transcription start [24]. Therefore, it is speculated that Pd-Ia may inhibit the intracellular signal cascade induced by Ang II, and further inhibit the expression of nuclear transcription factors, such as c-Jun protein, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of cardiomyocytes.

Tinglizi: bitter, acrid, chill. The lung and bladder, lung qi, eliminating phlegm and relieving asthma with diarrhea, diuresis detumescence. The chemical composition of the cardiac glycosides, sulfur acid, fatty oil, etc.. Guo Juan and other [25] study found. Tinglizi water extract in mice reduces plasma cAMP concentration, suggesting that it may inhibit the excitability of sympathetic nerve function. L- thyroxine sodium (L-Thy) induced ventricular remodeling in a rat model of Tinglizi, water extract reduced myocardial Ang II, plasma ALD and myocardial hydroxyproline (Hyp) content, description of Tinglizi water extract can inhibit the RAAS neuroendocrine and myocardial fibrosis, which may be the water extract of Tinglizi one of the mechanisms of myocardial protection, inhibit ventricular remodeling and myocardial hypertrophy.

Seaweed: salty, cold. The liver and kidney. Effect of Xiaotan soft Kennedy, and water swelling. Derived from seaweed in the antihypertensive peptides, safe non-toxic, no side effects, can reduce blood pressure, reduce blood lipids, blood vessels, etc.. ACE is an inhibitor of ACE, which is the same as other antihypertensive peptides, which inhibit the activity of the peptides, and it can reduce the blood pressure. ACE is a zinc containing two carboxylic peptide peptidase, 2 Zn2+ binding sites, the catalytic reaction of active groups ACE location. Can lower blood pressure peptide binding Zn2+ competitive with ACE active site and inactivates ACE, two kinds of biochemical reaction process and prevent ACE hydrolysis of angiotensin I into angiotensin II and bradykinin catalyzed hydrolysis of its inactivation, play a role in lowering blood pressure. The ACE inhibitory activity of antihypertensive peptides was determined by the molecular weight and amino acid composition of active peptides.

Almonds: bitter, tepid. Have small poison. Lung and large intestine meridian. Effect of relieving cough and asthma, laxative. Almond contains the components of the almond, fatty oil, protein and free amino acids. Liu Ning [26] of almond protein powder as raw materials respectively by Protamex, Alcalase, Neutrase, Flavourzyme, Proleather, FG-F and papain hydrolysis, the study showed that except Flavourzyme, other protease hydrolysates had better inhibitory effect on the ACE, when the concentration of 2.5mg/ml, the inhibition rate was more than 67%. The optimal hydrolysis time of almond protein enzymolysis of Alcalase and Proleather FG-F were 90min and 180min, corresponding to the degree of hydrolysis was 16.91% and 18.14% respectively; the IC50 hydrolysates of two enzymes of ACE were 1.24mg/ml and 0.98mg/ml. Proleather FG-F almond protein hydrolysate, Alcalase enzymatic hydrolysis by pepsin and trypsin digestion, ACE inhibitory activity is still high, showing good stability in vitro digestion.

Five, calm the liver and wind medicine

Where has the Pinggan Qianyang Xifeng or antispasmodic agents, called Pinggan Xifeng drugs. Mainly used for the treatment of liver Yang, liver wind stirring syndrome. At present, RASS antagonists are uncaria, antelope horn, flying centipede.

Uncaria: sweet, slightly cold. Liver and pericardium meridian. Effect of Xifeng Zhijing, Pinggan qingre. The main effective components of Uncaria rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline (Rhy) (Isorhy) etc.. Rhy is the main active ingredient of uncaria, diastolic blood vessels, anti hypertension, anti experimental cerebral ischemia and calcium antagonistic action. Li Yanju et al. [27] experiments were conducted to observe the effects of Rhy on the proliferation of VSMCs induced by Ang II and to explore the possible mechanism of action of VSMCs. The results showed that Rhy could significantly inhibit the proliferation of rat VSMCs induced by Ang, and it was concentration dependent.

Antelope horn: salty and cold. The liver, heart. Effect of Pinggan Xifeng, Liver eyesight, scattered blood detoxification. Yang Xingcai [28] observation of traditional Chinese medicine Antelopis treatment of hypertension (hyperactivity of liver Yang) the curative effect, the test results show that the drug has a definite antihypertensive effect and improvement of liver yang hyperactivity symptoms, and can reduce the plasma ET-1 and Ang- II levels, improve vascular endothelial function, increase the content of NO, so that the coordination of blood vessels the contraction factor and vascular relaxing factor between the balance. Its mechanism may be related to the level of endothelin and nitric oxide, which makes the relationship between the two tend to be balanced.

Flying centipede: taste slightly pungent, temperature, liver, spleen, kidney, spleen dampness and water. ALD can promote the fibrosis of heart, lung, kidney and other organs, which is an important factor in the development of fibrosis. So the [29] River Cui experimental observation of aldosterone in rat hepatic fibrosis of seven centipede. Found in the hepatic fibrosis group in serum and liver tissue ALD significantly increased compared with normal group, there are certain pathogenic significance on hepatic fibrosis; centipede seven group compared with the normal group, the serum and liver of ALD also increased, probably due to flying centipede antagonist of ALD receptor, ALD compensatory increase. The flying centipede seven mainly through the antagonism of liver tissue ALD receptor to play its anti fibrosis effect on serum ALD levels.

Six, RASS antagonist of other traditional Chinese Medicine

In other traditional Chinese medicine efficacy, the RASS antagonists are to take medicine rhubarb, dampness and dampness medicine Poria, Rhizoma Atractylodis, Radix Puerariae warmdrug divergent wind, dispelling the cold medicine Evodia andchallenge insecticidal antipruritic garlic.

Rhubarb: bitter, cold. The spleen, stomach, intestine, liver, pericardium. The efficacy of purging and deposition, clearing heat and purging fire, detoxification, blood stasis dredging. Emodin (emodin) is an effective component extracted from Radix et Rhizoma rhei. Et al. [30] was used to model the rat aortic VSMc in vitro, and the proliferation of VSMc was induced by Ang. Emodin could inhibit the proliferation of VSMc induced by Ang in 10-80umol /L.

Poria cocos: sweet, light, flat. The heart, spleen and kidney. Effect of water swelling, dampness, spleen and heart. Poria Cocos (Poriatin) is the main active ingredient of Poria cocos. It has a similar structure with aldosterone and its antagonists, which can compete with aldosterone receptors on the renal cell membrane and thus play an anti aldosterone activity. In addition, the experimental results showed that [31] can not only bind to aldosterone receptor in renal cell membrane, but also has anti aldosterone activity in rats. Dose dependent relationship. In vitro, it is possible to compete with aldosterone receptor, which can reverse the aldosterone effect, and does not affect the synthesis of aldosterone.

Herb: spicy, bitter, warm. The spleen, stomach and liver. Invigorating spleen dampness, dispelling dampness, eyesight. Including terpenoids, flavonoids and Atractylodes polyene alkyne compounds. Chen Hongyuan proved [32], inhibitory effect of Atractylodes rhizome extract of ACE obviously, the active site of the strong polarity, which further enriches the medicinal value of Rhizoma Atractylodis, its inhibitory activity is a single component or multi-component interaction results, how the mechanism is not yet clear.

Semen Raphani: Weixin, Gan, ping. In the lung, spleen and stomach. Effect of digestion than inflation, Huatan jiangqi. Pu Zhongyun [33] to observe the effective ingredients of semen Raphani soluble alkaloid in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of the antihypertensive effect, found that different doses of semen Raphani could significantly increase the serum NO content in rats, and decreased plasma Ang II levels in rats, but on plasma renin activity (PRA) had no effect. While the use of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker irbesartan treatment group, rat plasma Ang II levels were significantly increased, indicating the large number of Ang II block failed to combine with AT1R induced vascular smooth muscle relaxation, blood pressure. The experimental results show that the hypotensive effect of Raphani soluble alkaloid may reduce plasma levels of Ang II, improve the content of NO in serum, and has nothing to do with the renin activity and AT1R.

Pueraria: cool, sweet, acrid, spleen and stomach function, relieving fever, fluid, Touzhen, Shengyang zhixie. Puerarin is the effective part extracted from the dried root of isoflavones of Pueraria lobata in leguminous plants. Sun Wencai [34] observed that puerarin can make atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) patients in plasma endothelin (ET) and Ang II concentration decreased significantly, presumably through down-regulation of ET and Ang II levels, improve insulin resistance, thus to a certain effect on the prevention and treatment of renal artery stenosis from. Puerarin can decrease the level of plasma endothelin, renin activity (RA) and Ang in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) within 2 weeks, indicating that puerarin has an important role in regulating the neuroendocrine function of patients with disordered. Wang Guoliang [35] found that Ang II effect of a certain concentration VSMC could promote its proliferation, increased with PKC- and NF- and alpha kappa B expression; a certain concentration of Puerarin can down regulate expression of PKC- alpha and NF- kappa B inhibited Ang II induced proliferation of VSMC.

Wu Zhuyu: pungent, bitter, hot. Have small poison. The liver, spleen, stomach, kidney. Effect of cold pain, Jiangni vomiting, antidiarrheal yang. Wu Zhuyu base is a monomer extracted from Wu Zhuyu. Yang Xiaoqing and other [36] studies on the effect of Evodia on the expression of C in thoracic aorta of hypertensive rats. The results found that rutaecarpine can effectively reduce blood pressure and improve vascular remodeling, the mechanism may be related to the expression of vasopeptidase potentiation of C mediated by angiotensin II inactivation and kallikrein activation. The Ang II concentration in plasma and thoracic aorta was significantly decreased after P (< < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < 0.05 or P < 0.01))).

Garlic: spicy, warm. The spleen, stomach, lung. The efficacy of insecticide detoxification, swelling, dysentery. Extract of allicin of Liliaceae plant of garlic bulb, with lipid, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effect. Zhang Dianxin [37] found that allicin can inhibit angiotensin II induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and there is a dose dependent relationship and reaction time.

To sum up, traditional Chinese medicine has many pharmacological characteristics, such as multiple pathways, multi targets and multi directions. The author summarized current RASS antagonism of traditional Chinese medicine has the following characteristics: from the effect of distribution mainly in the tonic, blood stasis, heat clearing drugs, phlegm and antiasthmatic, Pinggan Xifeng drugs, such as diaphoretic, attack drugging, dampness, dampness, drug digestion and cold dispelling drugs, toxic drugs also have insecticidal antipruritic individual distribution. Rheumatism medicine, Qi medicine, hemostatic, sedative, astringent, anthelmintic, resuscitation drugs, emetic prescription, Badushengji medicine has no such drugs. From the point of view of drug properties, cold drugs have 18 kinds of drugs, hot drugs have 11 flavors, flat drugs have a taste of the 4. Therefore, according to the current research, this type of cold medicine is more popular than hot drugs. From the meridian to shield, to the liver meridian of traditional Chinese medicine has 20 kinds, respectively, epimedium, angelica, Radix Paeoniae Alba, radix salviae miltiorrhizae, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, safflower, Jiang Huang, Dalbergia, motherwort, leech, Chuipencao, kuhseng, Digupi, seaweed, hook Teng, antelope horn, centipede, rhubarb, the surgery, Wu Zhuyu, the rest 9 kinds of foot Shaoyin, heart meridian 12, belongs to the lung meridian 10, spleen meridian of Foot Yangming Meridian 9 flavor, 8 flavor.

RASS is an important source of innovative drugs because of its advantages such as wide source, low toxicity, low cost and rich structure. The extraction of active components of RASS in natural medicines can reduce the adverse reactions of Western medicine according to the different syndromes and symptoms of patients. In view of the long-term use of hypertension and other diseases, it is of great practical significance to develop a highly effective and low toxic anti renin angiotensin system.

References (omitted)

[1][foundation project, national natural foundation of China (30873262), Shanghai Municipal Education commission.


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