The human body, such as a machine, the machine over time to gradually wear or failure of parts, the replacement of new parts can make the ma
The human body, such as a machine, the machine over time to gradually wear or failure of parts, the replacement of new parts can make the machine to run again. The parts of the human body will also be aging due to the passage of time, due to accidental injury, due to disease and failure. The failure of the human body parts replaced with new alternatives has become a reality. Some people ask, if the joints of the limbs can be damaged if a new? The answer is yes, the artificial joint can be used to replace the body has been damaged by the failure of joints. However, the human body is not an ordinary "machine", the structure of the human body is complex, precision, good artificial joint cannot meet the structure and function of normal human body joints so the artificial joint replacement, we must have a clear understanding of what circumstances the need for joint replacement? What are the advantages and disadvantages of joint replacement? Is artificial joint operation complex and dangerous? What are the possible complications? What problems should be paid attention to before and after the operation?
As early as 100 years ago, human beings have been replaced by artificial joints have changed the idea of human joints, but because of the limitations of technology and materials, so that the progress of artificial joint technology slow. After the twentieth Century 40~50, with the development of science, especially the progress of material science and biomechanics, the research and practical application of artificial joints gradually matured. At present, in Europe and the United States and other developed countries, artificial joint replacement surgery is quite common, the United States a year there are hundreds of thousands of cases of joint replacement surgery. In the 70s of last century, our country has already carried out the operation of artificial joint, but only in the early years of the 90s, when the artificial joint company entered the domestic market, the artificial joint operation gradually formed a certain scale.
The emergence and development of artificial joints, so that the idea of replacing the former bad change into reality. At present, the main joints of the limbs can be replaced by artificial joints, but the most widely used is the hip and knee joints. Commonly used artificial joint design of metal alloy or ceramic and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene prosthesis match, there are various types, different design, different joint interface and various specifications of artificial joint. On the artificial hip joint prosthesis, implants and bones of the human body is connected with the use of biological fixed form or using a fixed called "bone cement" adhesive, have micro treatment at the prosthesis surface, or covered hydroxyapatite coating on favorable implant and bone connection, also improve wear resistance, ceramic design the femoral head in the development and utilization of new design and new material is still ongoing.
Who needs joint replacement? In general, when the joint due to trauma, non suppurative inflammation, necrosis, tumor and other diseases that cause joint structural damage loss of function, other treatment is invalid or inappropriate, can be considered artificial joint replacement. Of course, in specific cases, we also need to consider some of the factors, such as the nature of the lesion, severity, age, physical condition, past medical history, etc..
The hip replacement is the most widely applied as an example, suitable for hip replacement has the obvious shift in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture; avascular necrosis of femoral head caused by the various reasons, the hip joint has obvious clinical damage, pain and dysfunction; severe osteoarthritis due to the various reasons, there are severe pain and dysfunction; the rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, joint pain, deformity, limitation of activity. Due to the various causes of hip dislocation or subluxation of osteoarthritis secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip; the cause of osteoarthritis and subluxation or dislocation; and other reasons caused by the destruction of the hip joint. After hip replacement, the patient can return to normal or near normal standing and walking function, relieve pain and improve the quality of life. Recently, a 93 year old man accidentally falls after injury of femoral neck fracture, elderly pain, poor appetite, malaise, is not used to stay in bed all day, through our comprehensive and detailed inspection, taking into account the elderly femoral neck fracture healing, and fracture displacement is obvious, we decide to implement joint replacement surgery for the elderly, the old man soon after you can sit up, after 1 weeks can help turn standing and walking, the old man's spirit, diet and physical will soon return to the state before fracture. Many examples show good effect of hip replacement, but also can improve the correction of shortening deformity, walking gait, the elderly patients to avoid long-term bed, avoid the complications caused by the bed.
The surface replacement of knee joint is mainly aimed at the elderly patients with severe knee osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in young adults. This will be in the joint surface cartilage surgery has bad resection for joint prosthesis is composed of metal alloy and polymer materials, and correction of joint deformity, restore normal limb alignment, surgery did not remove too much bone, but also to retain bone. Therefore, one knee arthroplasty figuratively into false teeth is true, because the replacement is only the surface, and the joint is the basis of reservation. After surgery, the patient after rehabilitation and training, and soon will be able to relieve the pain, to resume walking.
Artificial joint replacement surgery after the development of recent decades and perfect, has become a mature operation, artificial joint replacement for suffering from joint diseases of patients suffering brings hope, many of the patients after the operation has been really enjoy the benefits of joint replacement. However, joint replacement surgery at the same time there are also some risk of complications, including joint prosthesis loosening, wear, dislocation, infection, deep vein thrombosis and some with heart, lung and liver, kidney related complications. Many elderly patients undergoing surgery, itself may have hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes and other medical history, any surgery is a risk for them. Therefore, it is necessary to make a comprehensive examination and evaluation before the operation, so it is very necessary to make full preparation, postoperative observation, proper rehabilitation and reasonable functional exercise are important aspects to ensure the success of the operation. It is the key to reduce the complications of artificial joint and maintain long-term good results by proper operation and correct installation of artificial joint. Artificial joint replacement surgery is a high technical requirements, the need for skilled and excellent surgical techniques, but also must have the correct choice of surgical indications, correct preoperative and post-processing ability and experience. Therefore, we suggest that it is best to have the conditions of the hospital, the strength of joint surgery, and has a wealth of experience and excellent technology to carry out artificial joint replacement surgery.
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